A Climate of Change – Who's NASA?

On April 11, 2012, a letter arrived at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC It was addressed to Administrator Charles Bolden from 49 former NASA astronauts, scientists and engineers, including some legendary figures from the Apollo "failure is not an option" era. Tersely, it asked that the Agency refrain from making unsubstantiated claims that human-produced carbon dioxide is having a catastrophic effect on Earth's climate.

NASA's public reaction was swift and predictable: Human-produced carbon dioxide is a leading cause of climate change. The facts are undisputed and indisputable. Have a nice day.

The letter-writers are conservative lunatics, right?

Well, maybe. Regardless of how it happened, the earth's surface is becoming less habitable even as its human population expands, limiting our prospects for survival as members of a free society. There are options. Dispersal is a universal strategy for survival. In the natural world, when the going gets tough, the tough get going – out of town. But where does a mere human go?

For a limited time, we had, and I believe we still have, the technical, financial, and organizational means to expand the human range beyond Earth into the inner solar system. If we can do that, and keep going, our prospects are limitless. Data I have seen suggests that we can start with a modest investment of $ 200 billion per year (in 2008 dollars) over fifteen years. That would buy us our first self-sustaining space colony, fully independent of resupply from the earth. It would allow us to sidestep central control's false dichotomy, which is the real issue with conservatives. They just don't want to live in a cave while working for the man with the Boeing Business Jet, the 328-foot mega-yacht, and the fleet of Rolls Royce Silver Shadows. Therefore, they do not buy the facts that are said to justify their bondage.

Space colonization gives us that third alternative beyond an impoverished life versus environmental Armageddon. It also provides the means (energy and materials) to give Earth a more prosperous, untrammeled existence. As always, there are barriers to overcome. The barriers in this case are not technical, financial, or organizational, but they do exist. According to the global Boeing Business Jet class, every other human being on the planet owes them a life. No one leaves until the debt is paid. Their demand for sacrifice, denser housing, rationing of water and energy, and redistribution of wealth is a strategy to fill their coffers at the expense of others. That and frontier formation are mutually exclusive propositions. There is a reason why frontiersmanship stands at the core of American values. It is because the most fundamental right of all is the right to leave.

It is not clear whether the people who took us from the earth to the moon in just ten years understand that they have focused a spotlight on an agency and a government completing a decades-long transition from tough and competent to comatose. It is clear that NASA, and the United States, are no longer capable of acting to preserve their founders' legacy without help.

That help can take the form of entertainment, of theater, of decentralization, and of spacefaring technology and cultural development independent of government intervention. Details are left as an exercise for the student.

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Cryptocurrency: The Fintech Disruptor

Blockchains, sidechains, mining – terminologies in the clandestine world of cryptocurrency keep piling up by minutes. Although it sounds unreasonable to introduce new financial terms in an already intricate world of finance, cryptocurrencies offer a much-needed solution to one of the biggest annoyances in today's money market – security of transaction in a digital world. Cryptocurrency is a defining and disruptive innovation in the fast-moving world of fin-tech, a pertinent response to the need for a secure medium of exchange in the days of virtual transaction. In a time when deals are merely digits and numbers, cryptocurrency proposes to do exactly that!

In the most rudimentary form of the term, cryptocurrency is a proof-of-concept for alternative virtual currency that promises secured, anonymous transactions through peer-to-peer online mesh networking. The misnomer is more of a property rather than actual currency. Unlike everyday money, cryptocurrency models operate without a central authority, as a decentralized digital mechanism. In a distributed cryptocurrency mechanism, the money is issued, managed and endorsed by the collective community peer network – the continuous activity of which is known as mining on a peer's machine. Successful miners receive coins too in appreciation of their time and resources utilized. Once used, the transaction information is broadcasted to a blockchain in the network under a public-key, preventing each coin from being spent twice from the same user. The blockchain can be thought of as the cashier's register. Coins are secured behind a password-protected digital wallet representing the user.

Supply of coins in the digital currency world is pre-decided, free of manipulation, by any individual, organizations, government entities and financial institutions. The cryptocurrency system is known for its speed, as transaction activities over the digital wallets can materialize funds in a matter of minutes, compared to the traditional banking system. It is also largely irreversible by design, further bolstering the idea of ​​anonymity and eliminating any further chances of tracing the money back to its original owner. Unfortunately, the salient features – speed, security, and anonymity – have also made crypto-coins the mode of transaction for numerous illegal trades.

Just like the money market in the real world, currency rates fluctuate in the digital coin ecosystem. Owing to the finite amount of coins, as demand for currency increases, coins inflate in value. Bitcoin is the largest and most successful cryptocurrency so far, with a market cap of $ 15.3 Billion, capturing 37.6% of the market and currently priced at $ 8,997.31. Bitcoin hit the currency market in December, 2017 by being traded at $ 19,783.21 per coin, before facing the sudden plunge in 2018. The fall is partly due to the rise of alternative digital coins such as Ethereum, NPCcoin, Ripple, EOS, Litecoin and MintChip.

Due to hard-coded limits on their supply, cryptocurrencies are considered to follow the same principles of economics as gold – price is determined by the limited supply and the fluctuations of demand. With the constant fluctuations in the exchange rates, their sustainability still remains to be seen. Consequently, the investment in virtual currencies is more speculation at the moment than an everyday money market.

In the wake of industrial revolution, this digital currency is an indispensable part of technological disruption. From the point of a casual observer, this rise may look exciting, threatening and mysterious all at once. While some economist remain skeptical, others see it as a lightning revolution of monetary industry. Conservatively, the digital coins are going to displace roughly quarter of national currencies in the developed countries by 2030. This has already created a new asset class alongside the traditional global economy and a new set of investment vehicle will come from cryptofinance in the next years. Recently, Bitcoin may have taken a dip to give spotlight to other cryptocurrencies. But this does not signal any crash of the cryptocurrency itself. While some financial advisors emphasis over governments' role in cracking down the clandestine world to regulate the central governance mechanism, others insist on continuing the current free-flow. The more popular cryptocurrencies are, the more scrutiny and regulation they attract – a common paradox that bedevils the digital note and erodes the primary objective of its existence. Either way, the lack of intermediaries and oversight is making it remarkably attractive to the investors and causing daily commerce to change drastically. Even the International Monetary Fund (IMF) fears that cryptocurrencies will displace central banks and international banking in the near future. After 2030, regular commerce will be dominated by crypto supply chain which will offer less friction and more economic value between technologically adept buyers and sellers.

If cryptocurrency aspires to become an essential part of the existing financial system, it will have to satisfy very divergent financial, regulatory and societal criteria. It will need to be hacker-proof, consumer friendly, and heavily safeguarded to offer its fundamental benefit to the mainstream monetary system. It should preserve user anonymity without being a channel of money laundering, tax evasion and internet fraud. As these are must-haves for the digital system, it will take a few more years to comprehend whether cryptocurrency will be able to compete with the real world currency in full swing. While it is likely to happen, cryptocurrency's success (or lack thereof) of tackling the challenges will determine the fortune of the monetary system in the days ahead.

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Scarsdale Diet Portion Sizes by Food Group

There has been some misconception about the Scarsdale diet portion sizes in the diet. Some have been led to believe there are no diet portion sizes and you are free to eat as much as you want. The Scarsdale diets are founded on the principle that you eat until your hunger is satisfied (or you are in other words full) and then you stop eating. You should not eat until you are stuffed. This is where the confusion begins with the Scarsdale diet portions and sizes.

Some people take the phrase "eat as much as you want" to mean there are no Scarsdale portions, however this is not correct.

In order to help folks know how much they can eat, here is a list of Scarsdale diet portion sizes; broken down into food groups; With a portion size comparison for you to follow. Hopefully this will guide those who want to have maximum weight loss while on this diet.

Scarsdale Portion Sizes for the Carbohydrate Food Group

The main component of the diet carbohydrate group is the protein bread. A serving here is one thin slice. The goal is to consume a protein bread that is greater than 4 grams of protein and less than 12 grams of carbohydrates.

There really are no other Scarsdale portions for the carbohydrate food group that you will need to measure.

Scarsdale Diets Portion Sizes for the Meat Food Group

The meat food group receives a lot of attention in this diet portion sizes you will measure. Since meat is a protein and the Scarsdale diet is high in protein you will be eating meat at a lot of you meals.

A good rule to use when measuring portions and sizes for the meat food group is to have a serving of meat about the size of your palm. This will roughly give you the required Scarsdale portions and sizes for the meat food group.

Scarsdale Diet Portions for the Fruits and Vegetables Food Group

The vegetable food group is another one that gets a great deal of consumption in this diet. Vegetables offer fiber, vitamins and minerals without consuming a lot of calories. However corn, potatoes, peas and beans (not veggies anyway) are not allowed. Other vegetables such as green beans, carrots, mushrooms have a Scarsdale portion size of about what will fit in one cupped hand. Spinach, lettuce cabbage and other leafy vegetables are two cupped hands.

If you have a big appetite though, the vegetable category is so low calorie these diet portions and sizes are the ones you want to increase and fill up on. You get fuller, with a lot fewer calories.

The Scarsdale portion sizes for fruit are always ½ a grapefruit and a medium fruit about the size of your fist for all others. If the fruit is cut up, generally what will fit in your cupped hand will give you the Scarsdale portion sizes for fruits.

Scarsdale Diet Portions for the Fat Food Group

Fats themselves (such as butter, margarine, and mayonnaise) are not allowed on the diet; so you have no need to worry about the Scarsdale diet sizes for this one!

Remember you should always consult your health care provider before beginning any diet regimen. Hopefully this has helped clear up any confusion you may have had regarding Scarsdale diet portion sizes . If you follow this guideline; you should fall within the desired 850-1000 calories per day for optimal weight loss.

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Satellite TV For Automobiles

Entertainment service in automobiles is getting important new players. AT&T has revealed plans for a satellite TV service called Cruisecast. And MediaFlo, a subsidiary of Qualcomm, a wireless telecommunications company (San Diego, CA.), is introducing a competing system called FLO TV, that is based on cell phone technology from AudioVox. The US switch to digital TV will free Rf spectrum for the delivery of advanced wireless services such as FLO TV.

Current players in the automotive TV market include Sirius XM's Backseat TV (also an AudioVox partner), an optional service from Sirius XM which offers limited video programming featuring Nickelodeon, Disney Channel and Cartoon Network combined with the standard audio programming. However, the quality of the Backseat TV system has been a disappointment. At its best, the picture is poor, and sometimes it is worse than poor.

Sirius XM currently has more than 19 million subscribers, and its adoption rate also has outpaced that of the wireless and satellite television industries. But the rate of growth has slowed in recent years. Sirius XM gained about 10 percent more subscribers last year, compared to 27 percent growth in 2007 and 48 percent growth in 2006. Sirius XM is currently battling financial problems, holding more about $ 1 billion in debt ($ 559 million of the debt matures this year) .

  • The business model for all of these services is to provide pay-for-service entertainment, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. In the United States, more than 90% of homes pay for television service, but less than 20% pay for entertainment in automobiles.
  • The AT&T Cruisecast system will cost about $ 1300 for the hardware, and $ 28 per month for the satellite subscription. The hardware requires installation of a small satellite antenna on the roof of the vehicle. At the price of the hardware, a security system should probably be included. The size of the antenna is approximately 10 "X 11", and 4 "in height. The technology is sophisticated enough to buffer the signal for interruptions. If you temporarily lose the signal by going under a tree, overpass, or tunnel, for a period of up to 3 minutes, the service will not be interrupted. The picture is standard definition TV, not HDTV.

    AT&T is partnering in the effort with RaySat Incorporated (Dallas, TX). RaySat has previously offered a similar system called TracVision that worked with DirecTV. The hardware for this system was even more expensive, costing about $ 3000. The antenna was significantly larger, and the system did not include the buffering feature.

    Cruisecast system satellite technology is based on Ku band transmission, with a bandwidth of 500-600 kilobits per second. The antenna needs exposure to the southern sky to receive the signal. The antenna is receiving a signal from a satellite in geostationary orbit over the equator. There is an electronics module that interfaces between the antenna and the monitors. This module can go in the trunk, or under a seat. It is comparable to the set-top box for cable TV. A remote control included for changing channels on the electronics module via an Rf signal, so that line-of-sight is not needed.

    Don't look for Howard Stern on the Cruisecast lineup. Instead AT&T will focus on family entertainment, including the Disney Channel, Discovery Kids, The Animal Planet, Nickelodeon, The Cartoon Network Mobile, and Comedy Central. In addition, news channels from MSNBC, CNN Mobile Live and CNBC are planned. "Our target audience is families with children," said RaySat CEO Yoel Gat. The Cruisecast lineup includes 22 video and 20 audio channels.

    Car rental companies Budget and Avis plan to offer the Cruisecast service at some locations for about $ 10 per day.

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    Local SEO For Small Business

    Small business needs SEO especially at the local level. For example, if someone is searching for a restaurant, they are going to look in their local area first. Local listings improve your visibility and help you rank higher in the search engines even if your main business can appeal to larger searches.

    Do you have your business listed with local online search engines?

    You should be listed in the following directories: Yellow Pages Online, Yahoo Local, Bing, Google+ and your Cities local online directories. When your business is linked to local directories, it is much easier for people to find you. You can increase your rankings on these sites by asking satisfied customers to post reviews underneath your business listing and click the thumbs up, like +1 etc.

    Link Building is another way to get your business ranked in the search engines.

    You can do this by adding comments and links to other businesses that are similar to yours. You can also cross promote with other businesses and offer to swap links. Make sure that you build your links slowly and naturally. Regulate them by doing a few one-day and a couple the next. This way the search engines won't penalize you and think you are spamming.

    Promote Your Business on social media platforms.

    Use social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter and Google+ and they should reflect the location of your business. It is nice to have lots of followers, but they mean nothing if these people don't become customers. Target your posts towards your local community. You can post specials, video and images to grab the attention of your followers.

    It could be something as simple as, mention you saw this post or tweet today and get a 20% discount off your next purchase. You increase the reach of your business and encourage more customers to visit. It is a great way to get re-peat business and build relationships with your customers.

    Online advertising

    Pay per Click advertising is one of the most powerful ways to target your local community. Use geo-targeted PPC for your online campaigns. For example, your business is in Denver, Colorado. You may run ads that target specific areas of Denver. People who aren't in this geographic area should be excluded.

    It's all about getting the right kind of traffic to boost your sales and get your customers to come back again and again. These are just few ways that you can use local SEO for small business to boost your online presence.

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    Free Exercise Tips And Fitness Motivation

    Do you find exercise to be a chore? Does it seem to be difficult to keep it up? Many people start with great intentions and are determined to start off with a fitness program that is going to change their lives / health / fitness overnight. It does not happen. You know the pattern – start full of enthusiasm and then day by day the regime gets a little shorter, the effort to keep going seems harder to find.

    Don't worry, everyone has exactly the same problem. We all go through just the same thing. All the exercise guru's and fitness trainers stand there and tell you how great you are going to feel and how they are going to change your life. Then things fade off and a few months down the line you are still sitting on the couch wishing that you were like the guys you are watching on the TV.

    OK. Lets try and address what's going on here. First off, don't believe that you are alone. The vast majority of people are in the same boat and have exactly the same problems. So, you want to be healthier and feel fitter, more vibrant and generally get that energy boost that everyone seems to go on about. Does it all sound like too much effort?

    I would advise that first you ensure that you are getting all the vitamins and minerals that your body needs. If you are short of anything in the nutritional sense then you will not feel like doing anything much. You will lack energy and not get around to even feeling like exercising. Ensure your diet includes the basic '5 a day' fruit and veg, or if not take supplements. A good multivitamin daily is good. Get one that includes iron – needed for the red blood cells. You won't feel like doing anything much if you are in any way anaemic. Also vitamin b complex is good to take regularly. A brewers yeast tablet daily will supply the vitamin b's. Extra energy can be attained by using other supplements such as Ginseng – an ancient Chinese remedy which is gaining in popularity in the Western world.

    Making sure you are well balanced from the inside will help to give you a feeling of well-being which in turn will make you feel more like keeping up with a fitness program. Eat regularly, little but often, and drink plenty of water. Limit the alcohol! Right, enough of the lecturing. How can we get the body exercising?

    Fitness comes from exercising the body. Its as simple as that.

    Next fact; people are lazy. They don't like exercising. Sitting on a couch is easier. Doing nothing is the simplest path. Now here is the major point of all this. The way your body is built is that it will follow the easy route and settle into the easy way, unless convinced otherwise. Once it starts getting regular exercise it will actually begin to crave more! Your body will ask you for more exercise when it starts to feel better – it maybe a strange way to think but this is important. Listen to your own body. Give it a little teaser. Take it for a walk each night. Just half a mile down the road and back. After week give it a little extra, a brisker walk and a longer distance.

    A week later, your body is saying to you that it wants a little more. You will feel like helping it. Go on, indulge it, try getting on that stepping machine. A short time a day. Turn on the TV and do it when watching your regular programs. The main thing to remember is that even after a little exercise, you body will start to ask you for more. Go along with it.

    Make sure that you use different exercise machines, to add variation and interest. You've probably got them all – exercise bike, elliptical cross trainer, weights, rowing machine. All the things you have seen and bought before and not used. Well dust them off, and use them while you are watching your TV or DVD's, it keeps your mind occupied while you are exercising and stops you getting bored.

    Above all else, make it interesting. Use any means you can. Music, DVD's, TV, audio cassettes, it does not matter. Plug your iPod or MP3 in. Get two machines and compete with your partner – make it a race! Or just compare distance / repetitions as recorded on the digital readouts. Do some exercise on one machine and then jump onto another. Keep changing – make a mental game of it – imagine you in a Decathlon. Don't stick to one machine. Keep changing, keep interested. Boredom is the killer in this – don't give it a chance!

    So, the most important fact to digest is the one that says your body will not only accept exercise but will actually ask you for more. Start it off and your own body will beg for more. Once started this is self generating! You just have to go along with it.

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    New Book Offers Practical Tips for Achieving Financial Security

    In Your Money and You: How to Increase Your Chances of Achieving Financial Security, Deborah Ellis, a longtime Certified Financial Planner (CFP), offers readers a plethora of information about stocks, bonds, saving, investing, allocating your investments, and even individual advice for people in different industries. While the book is full of information, it's also written in a highly accessible manner. Ellis shares her personal stories of how she began saving money as a child and young woman, how her aunt taught her how to invest and buy stocks, and how things have changed in the decades since she began saving. Her personal experiences then branch into her professional experiences with clients and with years of investing in the market.

    I know investing can be scary and confusing, but that's usually due to a lack of information or the fear that we won't understand the information. As Ellis shows us, investing is really not that difficult. In fact, anyone who passed middle school math classes can figure it out. What is harder is to learn to save and to break some negative beliefs we may have about money so that we can quit solely working for money and learn to make it work for us. The book opens with a quote from Napoleon Hill, author of the classic book Think and Grow Rich, that states, "If you let it, you will be surprised at how money attracts money." Nothing could be truer, and Ellis shows us how it can be true for all of us. She states, "I believe that today the stock market is a gateway to opportunity in America. I believe it is a way for almost anyone from any walk of life to build wealth and partake in the American Dream." Your Money and You shows you just how to pass through that gate.

    The book's opening chapters teach us how to take on a leadership role with our money. Ellis helps us learn how to plan for retirement and what to expect. She walks us through the elements of a financial plan. Then she has us take a financial inventory of where we currently are so we know what we have to work with and what is required to reach our goals. She teaches us how to develop a saving and a spending plan, and finally, how to assemble a team to help us, a team that may include an accountant, a financial advisor, maybe a lawyer, etc. We do not hand over our financial affairs to these people, but rather, we learn to lead them so they can help us achieve our goals. Ellis warns us "if one of your team members has different matters, a bias, or wants you to go in a direction you don't agree with, you need to find another team member!" That's just one example of how Ellis tells it like it is. Another example I love and know is very true is that "If you want to charge something you cannot pay off in full, you cannot afford it."

    Next, Your Money and You gets into all the meat of investing. Ellis walks us through the power of compounded interest and how investing over time can benefit us. She explains to us the differences between stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. She clarifies just exactly what the stock exchange and market indices are, and she teaches us how to understand how different companies and their stocks are rated.

    Once Ellis makes sure we understand the market, she gets into the more personal aspects of investing. She helps us understand our risk tolerance for investing, how to diversify our assets, and all the various scenarios we might encounter from inheriting money to winning the lottery and, ultimately, how to go about retiring.

    The book closes with some chapters for people in special situations, including those in the military, those in industries like film and television where you may go from feast to famine at different times, and those who are self-employed. A bonus section includes several articles on how to achieve financial security.

    Your Money and You is the perfect book to get you started with saving and investing your money. Don't put off reading it; it's time to invest in yourself. As Ellis warns us, "money is not static. If you nurture it, it will grow. If you neglect it, you will end up with very little. It is up to you." Furthermore, Ellis tells us "Investing is not difficult. Developing an investing mindset might take a little more effort." Your Money and You can help you develop that mindset, and once you do, your money will begin to work for you so that, ultimately, you will not have to work.

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    The History of German Automobiles

    In 1870, when Nikolaus Otto and his partner Karl Benz independently developed their internal combustion engines, which were four-stroke at the time, Germany was placed on the map as the birthplace of modern autos and the history of German Automobiles had begun. During the latter part of 1870, Karl Benz began experimenting with their engine design and some how ended up attaching it to a couch. This would forever be the genesis of today's modern automobiles. And by 1901, the country of Germany produced roughly 900 autos per year.

    Robert A. Brady, an American economist, documented extensively Germanys rationalization movement which helped to mold their industry's focus during the 1920s. While Bradys general theories about this movement were applicable to Germanys auto industry, the Weimar Republic in its recent years saw the industry in declining health. And because of Germany being extremely reticent when trying to develop its automotive industry, they opened the floodgates for American automobile manufacturers like General Motors who bought out German automaker Opel and Ford Motor Company who possessed a very successful subsidiary in Germany.

    However, the German automobile industry tumbled as the worlds economy folded during the late 1920s and early 1930s when the Great Depression raged on. This was a sad day indeed for the history of German automobiles. After the Great Depression had subsided, only twelve automakers in Germany survived. That small group included Opel, Fords Cologne factory and Daimler-Benz of out of an astonishing total of 86 automobile companies operating before the Depression. Also, four of Germanys top auto manufacturers-Dampf Kraft Wagen, Horch, Audi and Wanderer-came together in a joint venture to form the Auto Union. This Union would play a significant part to lead Germany back from their troubles with the depression.

    In 1930, when the Nazi Party came to power, a significant change came about for Germanys auto industry and for the history of German automobiles. Motorisierung, a policy instituted by the Nazi Party, was a policy about transportation that Adolf Hitler himself believed to be a key part of his attempt to raise his citizens living standards in order to make the Nazi Party seem more legitimate to them. The Nazis began work on highway schemes while at the same time undertaking the Volkswagen project in order to build and design the inexpensive yet robust peoples car. "

    As of today, Germanys auto industry is one of its top employers, featuring a total labor pool of roughly 866,000 workers. Additionally, the country boasts of having the largest percentage of automobile production in all of Europe with a 29% share of the market, next is France with 18%, Spain with 13% and finally the United Kingdom with a 9% share of the market .

    There are currently six major German companies which are dominating the automobile industry there: BMW, Porsche, VW, Opel (General Motors owns them), Audi (part of the Volkswagen Group) and Daimler AG. Roughly six million new vehicles are produced each year in Germany whilst around 4.8 million vehicles are produced each year by German brands overseas. Along with the top two auto manufacturers Japan and the United States, the country of Germany is number three on the list of top auto manufacturers around the world.

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    Are You Right For The Keto Diet?

    These days, it seems like everyone is talking about the ketogenic (in short, keto) diet – the very low-carbohydrate, medium protein, high-fat eating plan that transforms your body into a fat-burning machine. Hollywood stars and professional athletes have publicly touted this diet's benefits, from losing weight, lowering blood sugar, fighting inflammation, reducing cancer risk, increasing energy, to slowing down aging. So is keto something that you should consider taking on? The following will explain what this diet is all about, the pros and cons, as well as the problems to look out for.

    What Is Keto?

    Normally, the body uses glucose as the main source of fuel for energy. When you are on a keto diet and you are eating very few carbs with only average amounts of protein (excess protein can be converted to carbs), your body switches its fuel supply to run mostly on fat. The liver produces ketones (a type of fatty acid) from fat. These ketones become a fuel source for the body, especially the brain which consumes plenty of energy and can run on either glucose or ketones.

    When the body produces ketones, it enters a metabolic state called ketosis. Fasting is the easiest way to achieve ketosis. When you are fasting or eating very few carbs and only average amounts of protein, your body turns to burning stored fat for fuel. That is why people tend to lose more weight on the keto diet.

    Benefits Of The Keto Diet

    The keto diet is not new. It started being used in the 1920s as a medical therapy to treat epilepsy in children, but when anti-epileptic drugs came to the market, the diet fell into obscurity until recently. Given its success in reducing the number of seizures in epileptic patients, more and more research is being done on the ability of the diet to treat a range of neurologic disorders and other types of chronic illnesses.

    • Neurodegenerative diseases. New research indicates the benefits of keto in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, autism, and multiple sclerosis (MS). It may also be protective in traumatic brain injury and stroke. One theory for keto's neuroprotective effects is that the ketones produced during ketosis provide additional fuel to brain cells, which may help those cells resist the damage from inflammation caused by these diseases.
    • Obesity and weight loss. If you are trying to lose weight, the keto diet is very effective as it helps to access and shed your body fat. Constant hunger is the biggest issue when you try to lose weight. The keto diet helps avoid this problem because reducing carb consumption and increasing fat intake promote satiety, making it easier for people to adhere to the diet. In a study, obese test subjects lost double the amount of weight within 24 weeks going on a low-carb diet (20.7 lbs) compared to the group on a low-fat diet (10.5 lbs).
    • Type 2 diabetes. Apart from weight loss, the keto diet also helps enhance insulin sensitivity, which is ideal for anyone with type 2 diabetes. In a study published in Nutrition & Metabolism, researchers noted that diabetics who ate low-carb keto diets were able to significantly reduce their dependence on diabetes medication and may even reverse it eventually. Additionally, it improves other health markers such as lowering triglyceride and LDL (bad) cholesterol and raising HDL (good) cholesterol.
    • Cancer. Most people are not aware that cancer cells' main fuel is glucose. That means eating the right diet may help suppress cancer growth. Since the keto diet is very low in carbs, it deprives the cancer cells of their primary source of fuel, which is sugar. When the body produces ketones, the healthy cells can use that as energy but not the cancer cells, so they are effectively being starved to death. As early as 1987, studies on keto diets have already demonstrated reduced tumor growth and improved survival for a number of cancers.

    Comparing Standard American, Paleo, & Keto Diets

    (As a% of total caloric intake)

    __________________________ Carbs __________ Protein _________ Fat

    Standard American Diet _____ 40-60% _________ 15-30% _________ 15-40%

    Paleo Diet _________________ 20-40% _________ 20-35% _________ 25-50%

    Keo Diet ________________ __5-10% __________ 10-15% _________ 70-80%

    The key distinction between the keto diet and the standard American or Paleo diets is that it contains far fewer carbs and much more fat. The keto diet results in ketosis with circulating ketones ranging from 0.5-5.0 mM . This can be measured using a home blood ketone monitor with ketone test strips. (Please know that testing ketones in urine is not accurate.)

    How To Formulate A Keto Diet

    1. Carbohydrates

    For most people, to achieve ketosis (getting ketones above 0.5 mM) requires them to restrict carbs to somewhere between 20-50 grams (g) / day. The actual amount of carbs will vary from person to person. Generally, the more insulin resistant a person is, the more resistant they are to ketosis. Some insulin sensitive athletes exercising vigorously can consume more than 50 g / day and remain in ketosis, whereas individuals with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance may need to be closer to 20-30 g / day.

    When calculating carbs, one is allowed to use net carbs, meaning total carbs minus fiber and sugar alcohols. The concept of net carbs is to incorporate only carbs that increase blood sugar and insulin. Fiber does not have any metabolic or hormonal impact and so do most sugar alcohols. The exception is maltitol, which can have a non-trivial impact on blood sugar and insulin. Therefore, if maltitol is on the ingredient list, sugar alcohol should not be deducted from total carbs.

    The level of carbs one can consume and remain in ketosis may also change over time depending on keto adaptation, weight loss, exercise habits, medications, etc. Therefore, one should measure his / her ketone levels on a routine basis.

    In terms of the overall diet, carb-dense foods like pastas, cereals, potatoes, rice, beans, sugary sweets, sodas, juices, and beer are not suitable.

    Most dairy products contain carbs in the form of lactose (milk sugar). However, some have less carbs and can be used regularly. These include hard cheeses (Parmesan, cheddar), soft, high-fat cheeses (Brie), full-fat cream cheese, heavy whipping cream, and sour cream.

    A carb level less than 50 g / day generally breaks down to the following:

    • 5-10 g carbs from protein-based foods. Eggs, cheese, and shellfish will carry a few residual grams of carbs from natural sources and added marinades and spices.
    • 10-15 g carbs from non-starchy vegetables.
    • 5-10 g carbs from nuts / seeds. Most nuts contain 5-6 g carbs per ounce.
    • 5-10 g carbs from fruits such as berries, olives, tomatoes, and avocados.
    • 5-10 g carbs from miscellaneous sources such as low-carb desserts, high-fat dressings, or drinks with very small amounts of sugar.

    Beverages

    Most people require at least half a gallon of total fluid per day. The best sources are filtered water, organic coffee and tea (regular and decaf, unsweetened), and unsweetened almond and coconut milk. Diet sodas and drinks are best avoided as they contain artificial sweeteners. If you drink red or white wine, limit to 1-2 glasses, the dryer the better. If you drink spirits, avoid the sweetened mixed drinks.

    2. Protein

    A keto diet is not a high protein diet. The reason is that protein increases insulin and can be converted to glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis, hence, inhibiting ketosis. However, a keto diet should not be too low in protein either as it can lead to loss of muscle tissue and function.

    The average adult requires about 0.8-1.5 g per kilogram (kg) of lean body mass per day. It is important to make the calculation based on lean body mass, not total body weight. The reason is because fat mass does not require protein to maintain, only the lean muscle mass.

    For example, if an individual weighs 150 lbs (or 150 / 2.2 = 68.18 kg) and has a body fat content of 20% (or lean body mass of 80% = 68.18 kg x 0.8 = 54.55 kg), the protein requirement may range from 44 (= 54.55 x 0.8) to 82 (= 54.55 x 1.5) g / day.

    Those who are insulin resistant or doing the keto diet for therapeutic reasons (cancer, epilepsy, etc.) should aim to be closer to the lower protein limit. The higher limit is for those who are very active or athletic. For everyone else who is using the keto diet for weight loss or other health benefits, the amount of daily protein can be somewhere in between.

    Best sources of high quality protein include:

    • Organic, pastured eggs (6-8 g of protein / egg)
    • Grass-fed meats (6-9 g of protein / oz)
    • Animal-based sources of omega-3 fats, such as wild-caught Alaskan salmon, sardines, and anchovies, and herrings. (6-9 g of protein / oz)
    • Nuts and seeds, such as macadamia, almonds, pecans, flax, hemp, and sesame seeds. (4-8 g of protein / quarter cup)
    • Vegetables (1-2 g of protein / oz)

    3. Fat

    Having figured out the exact amounts of carbs and protein to eat, the rest of the diet comes from fat. A keto diet is necessarily high in fat. If sufficient fat is eaten, body weight is maintained. If weigh loss is desired, one should consume less dietary fat and rely on stored body fat for energy expenditure instead.

    (As a% of total caloric intake)

    _________________________ Maintain Weight _______ Lose Weight

    Carbs ____________________ 5-10% ________________ 5-10%

    Protein __________________ 10-15% _______________ 10-15%

    Fat from diet _____________ 70-80% _______________ 35-40%

    Fat from stored body fat ___ 0% ___________________ 35-40%

    For individuals who consume 2,000 calories a day to maintain their weight, daily fat intakes range from about 156-178 g / day. For large or very active individuals with high energy requirements who are maintaining weight, fat intakes may even exceed 300 g / day.

    Most people can tolerate high intakes of fat, but certain conditions such as gallbladder removal may affect the amount of fat that can be consumed at a single meal. In which case, more frequent meals or use of bile salts or pancreatic enzymes high in lipase may be helpful.

    Avoid eating undesirable fats such as trans fat, highly refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils, as well as high amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fats.

    Best foods to obtain high quality fats include:

    • Avocados and avocado oil
    • Coconuts and coconut oil
    • Grass-fed butter, ghee, and beef fat
    • Organic, pastured heavy cream
    • Olive oil
    • Lard from pastured pigs
    • Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs)

    MCT is a specific type of fat that is metabolized differently from regular long-chain fatty acids. The liver can use MCTs to rapidly produce energy, even before glucose, thus allowing an increased production of ketones.

    Concentrated sources of MCT oil are available as supplements. Many people use them to help achieve ketosis. The only food that is uniquely high in MCTs is coconut oil. About two-thirds of the coconut fat is derived from MCT.

    Who Should Be Cautious With A Keto Diet?

    For most people, a keto diet is very safe. However, there are certain individuals who need to take special care and discuss with their doctors before going on such a diet.

    • Those taking medications for diabetes. Dosage may need to be adjusted as blood sugar goes down with a low-carb diet.
    • Those taking medications for high blood pressure. Dosage may need to be adjusted as blood pressure goes down with a low-carb diet.
    • Those who are breastfeeding should not go on a very strict low-carb diet as the body can lose about 30 g of carbs per day via the milk. Therefore, have at least 50 g of carbs per day while breastfeeding.
    • Those with kidney disease should consult with their doctors before doing a keto diet.

    Common Concerns With A Keto Diet

    • Not being able to reach ketosis. Make sure you are not eating too much protein and there is no hidden carbs in the packaged foods that you consume.
    • Eating the wrong kinds of fat such as the highly refined polyunsaturated corn and soybean oils.
    • Symptoms of a "keto-flu" , such as feeling light-headed, dizziness, headaches, fatigue, brain fog, and constipation. When in ketosis, the body tends to excrete more sodium. If one is not getting enough sodium from the diet, symptoms of a keto-flu may appear. This is easily remedied by drinking 2 cups of broth (with added salt) per day. If you exercise vigorously or the sweat rate is high, you may need to add back even more sodium.
    • Dawn effect. Normal fasting blood sugars are less than 100 mg / dl and most people in ketosis will achieve this level if they are not diabetic. However, in some people fasting blood sugars tend to increase, especially in the morning, while on a keto diet. This is called the "dawn effect" and is due to the normal circadian rise in morning cortisol (stress hormone) that stimulates the liver to make more glucose. If this happens, make sure you are not consuming excessive protein at dinner and not too close to bedtime. Stress and poor sleep can also lead to higher cortisol levels. If you are insulin resistant, you may also need more time to achieve ketosis.
    • Low athletic performance. Keto-adaptation usually takes about 4 weeks. During which, instead of doing intense workouts or training, switch to something that is less vigorous. After the adaptation period, athletic performance usually returns to normal or even better, especially for endurance sports.
    • Keto-rash is not a common side effect of the diet. Probable causes include production of acetone (a form of ketone) in the sweat that irritates the skin or nutrient deficiencies including protein or minerals. Shower immediately after exercise and make sure you eat nutrient dense whole foods.
    • Ketoacidosis. This is a very rare condition that occurs when blood ketone levels go above 15 mM. A well-formulated keto diet does not cause ketoacidosis. Certain conditions such as type 1 diabetes, being on medications with SGLT-2 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes, or breastfeeding require extra caution. Symptoms include lethargy, nausea, vomiting, and rapid shallow breathing. Mild cases can be resolved using sodium bicarbonate mixed with diluted orange or apple juice. Severe symptoms require prompt medical attention.

    Is Keto Safe For Long-Term?

    This is an area of ​​some controversy. Though there have not been any studies indicating any adverse long-term effects of being on a keto diet, many experts now believe that the body may develop a "resistance" to the benefits of ketosis unless one regularly cycles in and out of it. In addition, eating a very high-fat diet in the long-term may not be suitable for all body types.

    Cyclical keto diet

    Once you are able to generate over 0.5 mM of ketones in the blood on a consistent basis, it is time to start reintroducing carbs back into the diet. Instead of eating merely 20-50 g of carbs / day, you may want to increase it to 100-150 g on those carb-feeding days. Typically, 2-3 times a week will be sufficient. Ideally, this is also done on strength training days on which you actually increase your protein intake.

    This approach of cycling may make the diet plan more acceptable to some people who are reluctant to permanently eliminate some of their favorite foods. However, it may also lower resolve and commitment to the keto diet or trigger binges in susceptible individuals.

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    NASA Sats For Point-To-Point Air Travel Solutions

    It appears NASA's studies of the future of air travel and air taxi concepts. By studying these possible futures we may find our selves ready to accept flying cars in everyone's garage.

    Spoke and Hub and the future of Commercial Air Travel has changed drastically over the last two-decades. The proof being the advancement in the marketplace by discount airline carriers of course and the most recent acceleration coming about with fractional jet aircraft market. Here are two great websites so you can read up on this futuristic concept and the innovations rapidly approaching reality at;

    Embry Riddle SATS Program

    NASA Langley SATS Program

    We may find ourselves sooner than expected with flying cars, perhaps similar to the cars in the movie; "Minority Report" with Tom Cruise. This of course is only one possible future; Net-Centric cars, which lock into the system and communicate with one another, like bids in a giant flock. No more traffic jams. The Spoke and Hub was a creation of the larger Airlines and Fred Smith's Fed Ex concept. But even now we are seeing Fed Ex pre-sort and send much of the packages direct, rather than to the Memphis Mid-Night Sort. Which indeed is something to see and is recommended for any logistics or distribution student as the economies of scale nearly pay for the extra distances that many packages travel through the night to reach you by 10 AM guaranteed the next morning.

    NASA is rapidly working on ways to improve safety and efficiency in the movement of people around the globe, which will free up air-traffic and alleviate some of the over worked and over used airports of our nation. Think on this.

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